Bokondini Initial Roll-Out

All right! Where I left off last time, we had just built the network, turned it off, and headed back to the States (just in time for another round of pitches and conferences). Once back in Seattle, we expected a relatively quick roll-out, but ended up having to pump the brakes while some regulatory questions got sorted out (and David returned to Papua from the States).

To my understanding, the terms of our license require that we not compete with any existing commercial telecom operator. In Bokondini, there exists a single operator, Telkomsel, who offers 2G coverage only. While the law clearly stated that we couldn’t compete with Telkomsel, “compete” was less clearly defined. Are we another cellular network? Yes. Do we offer 2G coverage? No. Do we offer telecommunications services (i.e. voice or text)? No. Could people use our network for telecommunications services? Via WhatsApp, absolutely. This set of questions ended up being our initial foray into the much larger existential question of “are we a telco or an ISP?” Or, more succinctly, “what the hell type of service do we provide?”

Initial Network Roll-Out:

On October 18, David sent us a WhatsApp message telling us that he had turned the network on in Bokondini and that everything looked good! Turns out, the system was already working as intended: he had traveled to Bokondini, powered everything on, inserted a SIM card, used the network to video-chat with his father in Florida for a hour, and then thought to give us a message. Two days later, we received word that he had distributed 10 SIM cards into the network and sold the first of many data packages to Fadly for resale. Without even realizing it, we were now a live business generating revenue!

Bugs, Bugs, and More Bugs:

I wish I could tell you the story ended there, but I’d be lying. As soon as we added our first ten users, the system started crashing, sometimes as often as every thirty seconds! This was, as you might expect, not the intended system behavior. After a week of frantic work, I was able to pin the issue down to a specific user’s phone, and stabilized the network by sending word to Bokondini kindly asking this user to please keep their phone off until further notice. Another two weeks of analyzing log files eventually revealed the culprit: a single incorrectly parsed header field, deep in our code, that was crashing our system every time the phone tried to join the network. A one-line fix and we were back in business… until we added another ten users and everything started crashing again! We stayed in this holding pattern for approximately two to three months: add ten users, brace for more issues, frantically fix them, take a day off, add ten more users. A grueling process, to be sure, but a necessary step on our march towards a stable LTE platform.

Interestingly, the majority of the bugs we flushed out had to do primarily with diversity in handsets. Phone manufacturers vary wildly in how (or if) they support certain fields and options, and different regions tend to see different manufacturers (For example, our customers predominantly use Oppo and Xiaomi phones, neither of which market their products in the United States). To make even more complex, LTE provides a large number of optional header fields and many different auth/ID workflows, which ends up creating a very wide range of corner-cases for our EPC to support.

End-of-the-Year Recap and 2019 Goals:

Though I didn’t know if we’d make it this far (or if I’d ever stop coding)… I’m proud to report that by the time December hit, we finally had stable, useful, functional LTE network running in Bokondini. I very seldom get bug reports now – and when I do, they’re predominantly fixed by something simple/stupid on my part. Most recently, I accidentally filled up the whole disk by enabling some basic logging tools to see how much traffic was being sent locally.

Moving forward into 2019, we’ve got a wide range of things we want to do, features we want to build, and research questions that we can finally start asking and answering. Now that the network stays running, our top engineering goals are code-cleaning, a couple feature-adds, and streamlining the deployment and configuration process, ideally to the point where a non-expert can download the project and get started without having to coordinate with us.

Research questions and curiosities range from the technical (how congested is the satellite link, how many users can we support?) to the economic (is this network profitable, how is it affecting the development of this community?) to the social (what are our users doing on the network?) to the personal (how much more fieldwork can I put into this project before my girlfriend dumps me?)

Obviously, these questions heavily intersect and interplay with each other. If we better understand what our users are doing on the network (social), we can build specific tools to support those actions (technical) which will undoubtably impact the overall usefulness of the network (economic). We’re hoping to really start digging into some of this research soon, especially with regards to using locally-hosted services as a way to relieve network congestion. As always, thanks for reading, and stay tuned for more!

Author: Spencer

Postdoctoral researcher at the University of Washington. I work on expanding Internet access and connectivity worldwide.

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